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Citation Styles Guide

A Practical Guide for Using APA or MLA Format.

Chicago/Turabian Format

Developed at the University of Chicago and later tweeked by Kate Turabian during her time as the University of Chicago graduate school dissertation secretary, this style is most widely used for research papers in the history field.

From Purdue OWL's Introduction to Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition:

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) covers a variety of topics from manuscript preparation and publication to grammar, usage, and documentation and has been lovingly called the “editors’ bible.” The material in this resource focuses primarily on one of the two CMOS documentation styles: the Notes-Bibliography System (NB), which is used by those in literature, history, and the arts. The other documentation style, the Author-Date System, is nearly identical in content but slightly different in form and is preferred in the social sciences.

In addition to consulting The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.) for more information, students may also find it useful to consult Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.). This manual, which presents what is commonly known as the "Turabian" citation style, follows the two CMOS patterns of documentation but offers slight modifications suited to student texts.

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